Penicillin: Adverse Reactions

Severe penicillin hypersensitivity with anaphylactic shock is very rare and occurs mostly in connection with parenteral administration (5 to 10 cases on 10000 treated subjects). The emergency treatment is based primarily on adrenaline (and, in addition, maybe intravenous corticosteroids, aminophylline).

However, hypersensitive skin reactions (skin rashes, urticaria) are frequent (1 to 7% of the treated subjects). High concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid are neurotoxic (lethargy, confusion, myoclonia, convulsions). A sterile abscess can occur at the area of the i.m. injection. Hemolytic anemia, nephritis and liver granuloma are very rare complications. Massive i.v. doses are associated with a risk of an electrolyte and volume overload.

Oral preparations occasionally cause nausea, vomiting or diarrhea.

Penicillin: Interactions

In vitro penicillin can inactivate aminoglycosides. Probenecid inhibits the tubulary secretion of penicillin.

Table of Contents | Indications | Pharmacology | Contraindications & Cautions | Risk Groups | References